|1||LUKEA||the basic form|
|2||LUEN||1st person singular present tense|
|3||LUIN||1st person singular past tense|
|4||LUKENUT||past participle, active|
The basic form is often used after another verb. Here are some random examples:
- Mun täytyy lukea tämä kirja huomiseksi. - I have to read this book for tomorrow.
- Haluatko tulla mukaan? - Do you want to come along?
- Voinko tehdä jotain? - Can I do something?
- Minä voin auttaa. - I can help.
- Saisinko lainata tätä? - Could I borrow this?
- Osaatteko mennä sinne? - Do you know how to go there?
When you know the so called minä-form, you can obviously talk about things you do, but you'll also know the weak stem of the verb. Just drop the n and you have the stem of the verb. It is used in the negative conjugation of the verb, and also when giving commands:
- Minä en lue. - I don't read.
- Sinä et lue - You don't read.
- Hän ei lue. - S/he doesn't read.
- Me emme lue. - We don't read.
- Te ette lue. - They don't read.
- He eivät lue. - They don't read.
- Lue! - Read!
- Älä lue! - Don't read!
More posts to read:
The past tense can be kind of tricky with the different vowel changes. You know, when you add the past tense i some other vowels might change or disappear. However, if you just memorize four important forms of each verb, you'll learn the past tense system automatically. (Just like you might have learned the irregular verbs in English, Swedish and German.) If there is a consonant change in present, it's the same in the positive past tense conjugation.
The fourth form is my favourite, because you can use it in so many structures, and it seems to be hard to remember that it is the form that you need in the negative past tense. Here are some examples:
- Miksi sinä et soittanut? - Why didn't you call? (negative past tense)
- Anteeksi, en muistanut. - I'm sorry, I didn't remember. (negative past tense)
- Oletko käynyt Lontoossa? - Have you been to London? (perfect tense)
- Minä en ole lukenut sitä vielä. - I haven't read it yet. (negative perfet tense)
- Olin jo mennyt nukkumaan, kun ovikello soi. - I had already gone to sleep when the doorbell rang. (pluperfect tense)
- En ollut vielä käynyt suihkussa, kun taksi tuli. - I hadn't taken a shower yet when the taxi arrived. (negative pluperfect tense)
You will probably hear this form the most when people talk about what they didn't do. (en ollut, en mennyt, en ostanut..) It would be so logical to say en oli*, en meni* or en osti* as that is the system in the present tense, but now you know better!
- A post about the past participle active
- How to use the perfect tense
- Memrise course about the four important forms.
About the author of this blog:
My name is Hanna Männikkölahti, and I am a native Finn who gives private lessons via Skype and simplifies books into easy Finnish. Please leave a comment, if you have something to ask about Finnish.