Monday, May 2, 2016

Past participle active in Finnish

This one is also called the NUT participle, and it's used in three tenses:

Past tense negative:

  • Miksi sinä et kertonut minulle? - Why didn't you tell me?

 Perfect tense:

  • Oletko sinä jo kertonut hänelle? - Have you told him already?
  • En ole kertonut hänelle vielä. - I haven't told him yet. 

Pluperfect tense:

  • Olin jo kertonut kaiken, mutta hän halusi tietää lisää. - I had already told everything, but he wanted to know more. 
  • En ollut kertonut hänelle mitään, mutta hän tiesi, mitä oli tapahtunut - I hadn't told him anything, but he knew what had happened. 

The NUT participle is quite easy to form: drop the infinitive ending and add NUT or NYT. In plural, it's NEET.

  • (to tell) kertoa > kerto + nut > kertonut
  • (to ask) kysyä > kysy + nyt > kysynyt

  • (to drink) juoda > juo + nut > juonut
  • (to eat) syödä > syö + nyt  > syönyt

Verb type 3: 

(Notice the slightly different ending!)

  • (to go) mennä > men + nyt > mennyt
  • (to study) opiskella > opiskel + lut  > opiskellut
  • (to walk) kävellä > kävel + lyt > kävellyt
  • (to wash) pestä > pes + syt > pessyt
  • (to bite) purra > pur + rut > purrut

Verb type 4: 

(Notice the double n.)

  • (to play) pelata > pela + nnut > pelannut
  • (to clean) siivota > siivo + nnut > siivonnut
  • (to wake up) herätä > herä + nnyt > herännyt

Here's a post about the use of the past tenses in Finnish.
This one is about the negative past tense.

NUT participle as an adjective:

  • Mihin se tuossa istunut poika meni? - Where did the boy who sat there go?
  • Mikä sen äsken puhuneen miehen nimi oli? - What was the name of the man who just spoke? (Yes, the stem of puhunut is puhunee-.)

NUT participle in a referative construction:

  • Tiedän hänen asuneen Helsingissä. - I know that he lived in Helsinki. (This one is more common in written language. Usually people would say Tiedän, että hän asui Helsingissä.)

If this was useful, you might also like my posts about the other participles.

About the author of Random Finnish Lesson: 

My name is Hanna Männikkölahti. I am a professional Finnish teacher who gives private online lessons and simplifies books into easy Finnish. Please read more in and follow this blog, if you want to be the first one to know when I post something new. 


Unknown said...

Hello. My name is Eryn. I am trying to learn Finnish and after reading this post I just wanted to know how do you decide which ending to use with certain words?

Random Finnish Lesson / Hanna Männikkölahti said...

Hei Eryn. Finnish endings are just like English prepositions, but in a different place and attached to the word stem: