Thursday, April 2, 2015

Referative construction

Did you know that you can avoid the conjunction että by using a structure with a VA- or NUT-participle? It's not used so much in spoken language, but it is very common in written language and for example in hospital reporting.

The first one is how you would normally say it. However, when writing, you can save space and time by dropping että, taking a VA-participle and adding a suitable possessive suffix.

  • Potilas kertoo, että hän asuu yksin. - The patient tells that he lives alone. 
  • Potilas kertoo asuvansa yksin. - The patient tells that he lives alone. 

What about if there are two different subjects?  If you have someone else telling what is going on, and you want to use the referative construction, you have to have the second person and the VA-participle in the genitive form, but you don't need the possessive suffix.

  • Poika kertoo, että potilas asuu yksin. - The son tells that the patient lives alone. 
  • Poika kertoo potilaan asuvan yksin. - The son tells that the patient lives alone. 

If something happened in the past, use the NUT-participle.  (Unfortunately, I still haven't written a separate post about it.) Notice how nut becomes nee before the suffix, which might be a bit confusing.

  • Potilas kertoo, että hän kaatui. - The patient tells that he fell over.
  • Potilas kertoo kaatuneensa - The patient tells that he fell over. (Actually, kaatuneensa can mean either kaatui, on kaatunut or oli kaatunut.)

Again, there can be two subjects. When using the referative construction, the second subject and the NUT-participle are in the genitive form.

  • Poika kertoo, että potilas kaatui. - The son tells that the patient fell over.
  • Poika kertoo potilaan kaatuneen. - The son tells that the patient fell over.

Here's a table that hopefully clarifies it all: 

  Which participle?
  One subject

  Two subjects


Potilas kertoo asuvansa yksin.                         
Poika kertoo potilaan asuvan yksin. 


Potilas kertoo kaatuneensa.  
Poika kertoo potilaan kaatuneen.

2 comments:

  1. Kiitos sulle! :)

    ReplyDelete
  2. The details you've posted is very useful. Services you've alluded has been very good. Cheers with regard to giving Regards: Bobcat Attachments

    ReplyDelete