Sunday, January 13, 2013

Finnish words ending with 's'

How to handle all the different Finnish words ending with s?
I hope that this post makes it a bit easier.

1. Kysymys-words: usually nouns, often ending with us or ys, but also is and as.

  • Basic form kysymys: Mikä se kysymys oli? - What was the question?
  • Genitive kysymyksen: Unohdin kysymyksen. - I forgot the question.
  • Partitive kysymystä: En ymmärrä kysymystä. - I don't understand the question.
  • Plural partitive kysymyksiä: Onko kysymyksiä? - Any questions?

Nouns derived from verbs:

  • ajatus, ostos, vastaus, kokous, rakennus, supistus, yllätys, herätys, raiskaus (thought, purchase, answer, meeting, building, contraction, surprise, wake-up, rape)

Spoken language words:

  • roskis, kämppis, bestis, pehmis, julkkis, tavis (trash bin, flatmate, best friend, soft ice cream, celebrity, a regular human being; not a celebrity)

Other nouns:

  • hauis, ananas, lihas, kasvis, jänis, teräs (biceps, pineapple, muscle, vegetable, hare, steel)

Check out my small post about the words ending with mus or mys.

2. Kallis-words, usually adjectives, often ending with as or is.

  • Basic form kallis: Tämä on liian kallis. - This is too expensive.
  • Genitive kalliin: Miten sinä olet ostanut näin kalliin puhelimen? - How come you've bought such an expensive phone?
  • Partitive kallista: Ruoka on tosi kallista Suomessa. - Food is really expensive in Finland. 
  • Plural partitive kalliita: Luomutomaatit ovat kalliita, mutta hyviä. - Organic tomatoes are expensive but good.

Random adjectives and nouns:

  • kaunis, rikas, rakas, raskas, liukas, kohtelias, valmis, ruumis, hammas, rengas, lammas, allas, varvas  (beautiful, rich, beloved/dear, heavy, slippery, polite, ready, body, tooth, ring/tyre, sheep, pool, toe)

Adjectives with the ending kas/käs, which implies that there is a lot of certain quality:

  • seksikäs, lihaksikas, iäkäs, trendikäs, älykäs, laadukas (sexy, muscular, elderly, trendy, intelligent, with good quality)

Notice the possible consonant change:

  • Sinulla on liukkaat varpaat. - You have slippery toes.

3. Rakkaus-words, usually ending with two vowels and s.

  • Basic form rakkaus: Rakkaus on lumivalkoinen. - Love is snow-white.
  • Genitive rakkauden: Kuka keksi rakkauden? - Who invented love?
  • Partitive rakkautta: En voi elää ilman rakkautta! - I cannot live without love!
  • Plural partitive rakkauksia: Paul ja Ringo olivat elämäni rakkauksia. - Paul and Ringo were the loves of my life. 

Words in this group are often derived from nouns or adjectives:

  • totuus, ystävyys, avaruus,  kylmyys, kuumuus, raskaus, kauneus, kirjallisuus, salaisuus  (truth, friendship, space, coldness, hotness, pregnancy, beauty, literature, secret)

4. Ordinal numbers that end with s.

  • Basic form kolmas: Minä olin kolmas! - I was the third!
  • Genitive kolmannen: Saanko ottaa kolmannen? - Can I take a third one? 
  • Partitive kolmatta: Etkö ole tavannut sen kolmatta vaimoa? - Haven't you met his third wife?
  • Plural partitive kolmansia: Ei minulla ole kolmansia talvikenkiä! - I don't have a third pair of winter shoes!

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About the author of this blog:

My name is Hanna Männikkölahti. I am a professional Finnish teacher who gives private online lessons and simplifies books into easy Finnish. You can contact me through You can subscribe to this blog from the right-hand banner. 

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