Sunday, January 13, 2013

Finnish words ending with 's'

How to handle all the different Finnish words ending with s?
I hope that this post makes it a bit easier.

1. Kysymys-words: usually nouns, often ending with us or ys, but also is and as.

  • Basic form kysymys: Mikä se kysymys oli? - What was the question?
  • Genitive kysymyksen: Unohdin kysymyksen. - I forgot the question.
  • Partitive kysymystä: En ymmärrä kysymystä. - I don't understand the question.
  • Plural partitive kysymyksiä: Onko kysymyksiä? - Any questions?

Nouns derived from verbs:

  • ajatus, ostos, vastaus, kokous, rakennus, supistus, yllätys, herätys, raiskaus (thought, purchase, answer, meeting, building, contraction, surprise, wake-up, rape)

Spoken language words:

  • roskis, kämppis, bestis, pehmis, julkkis, tavis (trash bin, flatmate, best friend, soft ice cream, celebrity, a regular human being; not a celebrity)

Other nouns:

  • hauis, ananas, lihas, kasvis, jänis, teräs (biceps, pineapple, muscle, vegetable, hare, steel)

Check out my small post about the words ending with mus or mys.

2. Kallis-words, usually adjectives, often ending with as or is.

  • Basic form kallis: Tämä on liian kallis. - This is too expensive.
  • Genitive kalliin: Miten sinä olet ostanut näin kalliin puhelimen? - How come you've bought such an expensive phone?
  • Partitive kallista: Ruoka on tosi kallista Suomessa. - Food is really expensive in Finland. 
  • Plural partitive kalliita: Luomutomaatit ovat kalliita, mutta hyviä. - Organic tomatoes are expensive but good.

Random adjectives and nouns:

  • kaunis, rikas, rakas, raskas, liukas, kohtelias, valmis, ruumis, hammas, rengas, lammas, allas, varvas  (beautiful, rich, beloved/dear, heavy, slippery, polite, ready, body, tooth, ring/tyre, sheep, pool, toe)

Adjectives with the ending kas/käs, which implies that there is a lot of certain quality:

  • seksikäs, lihaksikas, iäkäs, trendikäs, älykäs, laadukas (sexy, muscular, elderly, trendy, intelligent, with good quality)

Notice the possible consonant change:

  • Sinulla on liukkaat varpaat. - You have slippery toes.

3. Rakkaus-words, usually ending with two vowels and s.

  • Basic form rakkaus: Rakkaus on lumivalkoinen. - Love is snow-white.
  • Genitive rakkauden: Kuka keksi rakkauden? - Who invented love?
  • Partitive rakkautta: En voi elää ilman rakkautta! - I cannot live without love!
  • Plural partitive rakkauksia: Paul ja Ringo olivat elämäni rakkauksia. - Paul and Ringo were the loves of my life. 

Words in this group are often derived from nouns or adjectives:

  • totuus, ystävyys, avaruus,  kylmyys, kuumuus, raskaus, kauneus, kirjallisuus, salaisuus  (truth, friendship, space, coldness, hotness, pregnancy, beauty, literature, secret)

4. Ordinal numbers that end with s.

  • Basic form kolmas: Minä olin kolmas! - I was the third!
  • Genitive kolmannen: Saanko ottaa kolmannen? - Can I take a third one? 
  • Partitive kolmatta: Etkö ole tavannut sen kolmatta vaimoa? - Haven't you met his third wife?
  • Plural partitive kolmansia: Ei minulla ole kolmansia talvikenkiä! - I don't have a third pair of winter shoes!

About the author of Random Finnish Lesson: 

My name is Hanna Männikkölahti. I am a professional Finnish teacher who gives private online lessons and simplifies books into easy Finnish. Please read more in and follow this blog, if you want to be the first one to know when I post something new. 

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